Rural areas from demographic perspective. Study case Poland and Romania

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Cosmina-Simona Toader Malgorzata Zajdel Andrea Ana Feher Ana Feher Malgorzata Michalcewicz-Kaniowska

Abstract

The rural area is an extremely varied area, agricultural area, the area occupied by forests and grazing the surface of non-agricultural lands (Riviera sea, etc.) and rural agglomerations is a separate entity from the urban areas characterized by a high demographic concentration and vertical and horizontal structures.


Being often under the impact of old production systems, characterized by accelerated development and irrational of industry, the countryside has been subject to economic transformation, social and environmental, which mostly resulted in exodus and impoverishment of the rural population. Given this situation, are downright remarkable efforts of developed countries and not only to balance rural-urban ratio, reconciliation and revival of rural areas is kept of unique material and spiritual values.


Rural areas are the result of interactions between man and nature, between interdependencies relations, who are specific to diversity of social actions and their natural environment, between the material and spiritual civilization, which for centuries coexist and evolve in a particular national territory. Image of rural area is emphasized by its size, which is the synthetic expression of social activities that are conducted using specific processes and phenomena of nature. All specific features of rural areas (natural, human, material and spiritual), which define the dimension of rural areas, are highlighted by the following components of the system: territorial administrative, demographic, economic and infrastructural.


European rural area was and is the subject of extensive restructuring processes that were the result of a complex interaction of social phenomena, economic, sectoral and regional transfers. In circumstances where over half of the 27 Member States of the European Union lives in rural areas, and it occupies over 80% of the total territory, rural areas have considerable potential for growth, with a vital social role. Rural population and surface area occupied and the importance of rural life for a country, make the problem of rural development to gain a national and international importance.


In this article the authors presents rural areas as an important part of a country with all its components. The authors elaborated a comparative analysis of rural areas from Poland and Romania from demographic perspective. The analysis was elaborated using indicators like population density, population structure by gender and age, migrations of population, relying on data from national and european statistics.


 

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